Issue #: 
February 23, 2012

In this issue of The Soul Beat:

This edition of The Soul Beat e-newsletter looks at Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Africa.  It includes a selection of Experiences, Strategic Thinking Documents, and Resource Materials that look at how communication is being used to: promote and educate around hygiene, ensure inclusive access to WASH, advocate for rights to water and sanitation, and mobilise communities. 

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1. Child-to-Child Health Clubs - Cameroon
The Child-to-Child Health Clubs project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) Cameroon Link Programme to raise awareness about the importance of proper sanitation and hygiene among schoolchildren, teachers, and parents in the outlying areas of Lebialem, in the southwest region of Cameroon. The child-to-child club activities were used as the entry channel for the involvement of young persons in primary schools. COL Cameroon Link uses peer education and the formation of sanitation clubs to complement the building of infrastructure, such as latrines and hand-washing facilities.

2. Pan African Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Programme
In January 2010, Plan International, with the International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC) and the Institute for Development Studies (IDS) United Kingdom (UK), launched a Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) project in eight African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Ghana, Niger, and Sierra Leone. This five-year project is designed to promote and scale-up community-based and school focused self-help sanitation approaches in Africa. The CLTS approach aims to raise awareness about the sanitation and hygiene practices in rural communities, and trigger communities into collective action to improve the situation.

3. The World Walks for Water and Sanitation - Global

Organised each year around World Water Day (March 22), the World Walks for Water and Sanitation is a global event that involves citizens around the world walking to demand that governments take the actions needed to ensure clean water and sanitation for all. Noting that millions of people are forced to walk 6 kilometres every day just to collect water for their basic needs, and billions have no safe place to go to the toilet, the coordinators of this campaign - End Water Poverty, Freshwater Action Network, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) United, and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) - aim to raise awareness of this crisis and demand that governments prioritise water and sanitation for all.



International World Water Day is held annually on 22 March as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. For more information click here.



4. Gender in Water and Sanitation
From the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), this working paper from 2010  highlights approaches to redressing gender inequality in the water and sanitation sector. The review is intended for sector ministries, donors, citizens, development banks, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and water and sanitation service providers committed to mainstreaming gender in the sector.

5. Equity and Inclusion in Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa - A Regional Synthesis Paper

By Archana Patkar and Louisa Gosling
This working paper was drafted for the 3rd AfricaSan Conference in July 2011 in Kigali, Rwanda, to support the technical session "Reaching the Unserved: Equity and Inclusion in Africa". According to the authors, the desk review, consultations, and analysis behind this paper reinforced what was already known - that excluded populations are not only people who suffer from "asset poverty", but also those who are shut out for social reasons. They argue there is a need to recognise equity and inclusion issues in planning and programming for water and sanitation; otherwise, gains can be "quickly snapped up by the better informed, better connected, and better off, marginalising even further those who are left behind without services."

6. Tanzania: A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey
By Yolande Coombes and Nat Paynter
This "Learning Note" brief, published in October 2011, shares the experience of the Global Scaling Up Handwashing programme, a World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP) project focused on applying behaviour change approaches to improve handwashing with soap among women of reproductive age (ages 15-49) and primary school-age children (ages 5-9). Implemented by local and national governments with technical support from WSP, the campaign is taking place in Peru, Senegal, Tanzania, and Vietnam. The brief discusses the development of the project in Tanzania, with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Challenges and lessons learned are highlighted to assist programme managers in designing and managing evidence-based handwashing with soap and/or other hygiene promotion programmes.

7. Increasing Children’s Access to Safe Drinking Water Through Low-cost Technologies in Mali - Gender, WASH and Education Case Study

By Fadimata Walet
This case study from September 2011 shares Oxfam Great Britain's experience of working in partnership with local authorities, communities, and other organisations to provide water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities to villages and schools, using low-cost water technologies. In Mali, a pilot project has introduced the rope pump – a new, low-cost, easy-to-maintain type of technology. According to Oxfam GB, this technology has increased access to water and contributed to an increase in enrolment and better child health. As well as providing clean drinking water and toilet facilities in schools, the project carried out public health campaigns, alongside campaigns to promote positive attitudes around girls attending school, to raise people's awareness about the importance of good hygiene in reducing rates of illness.

8. Involving Men in Handwashing Behavior Change Interventions in Senegal

Seydou Nourou Koita
This "Learning Note" from 2010 shares the experience of the Global Scaling Up Handwashing programme in Senegal which sought to involve men in the campaign. According to the brief, men have a central role to play in handwashing behaviour change. As gatekeepers, men allow access to their household and provide funds for soap. As protectors, men can play a follow-up role to the outreach session and ensure that household members wash their hands with soap. As role models, men wash their hands with soap while encouraging others to do the same.

9. Join up, Scale up: How Integration Can Defeat Disease and Poverty

This report, published in September 2011, highlights examples across 17 countries of how the strategy of bringing different development approaches together - "integration" - is working to help address issues such as education, urban agriculture, hygiene, water and sanitation, income improvement, and a range of health needs, such as HIV/AIDS, diarrhoea, nutrition, and maternal health. Based on evidence of impact presented here, the report calls on the international community, including donor and developing-country governments, to prioritise and invest in these joined-up programmes.  The report is co-authored by a group of 6 aid agencies: Action Against Hunger, Action for Global Health (United Kingdom (UK) and France), End Water Poverty, PATH, Tearfund, and WaterAid.

10. Harnessing the Power of Community Radio Broadcasting to Promote Accountability, Transparency and Responsiveness of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Service Provision in Uganda

By Dennis Nabembezi, Harriet Nabunya, Juliet Abaliwano, and Davis Ddamulira
This report from 2007 shares experiences and lessons learned by WaterAid Uganda and the Uganda Water and Sanitation NGO Network (UWASNET) in implementing community radio programmes on water supply and sanitation. According to the report, part of the reason that governments and other service providers are not sufficiently responsive to demands for better water supply and sanitation is that the heaviest burden falls mostly on women, children, and "the poorest of the poor." These excluded groups often lack the power to determine and direct the priorities of political processes. The report states that radio offers a unique opportunity for economically poor citizens to engage with policymakers and politicians in improving the quality of WASH services and responsiveness of government.

11. Learning from Experience: Rights and Governance Advocacy in the Water and Sanitation Sectors

By Kolleen Bouchane
Published by the Freshwater Action Network (FAN) and WaterAid in March 2011, this report includes case studies and examples of rights and governance advocacy in water and sanitation programming. As part of this partnership on rights and governance advocacy, FAN and WaterAid are leveraging the expertise of local civil society organisations (CSOs) and networks: 28 partners from 14 countries. The programme's aim is "[t]o increase the capacity, resources and voice of civil society 'policy communities', including marginalised groups, to participate in effective and inclusive evidence-based dialogues with decision-makers in the water and sanitation arena and build pressure to secure pro-poor service delivery."

12. Promoting Good Hygiene Practices: Key Elements and Practical Lessons
Published by WaterAid, the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, and International Water Centre (IWC), this compilation is designed to strengthen the capacity of organisations to design and deliver effective hygiene promotion programmes leading to the improved health of communities. The compilation of 3 keynote papers and 31 case studies in this publication cover community-based approaches, campaign approaches, focus on school and children, and research and monitoring. To assist readers, a 12-page snapshot provides a brief description of each case study. The final section of the snapshot document highlights some of the key learnings from the case studies.



The Soul Beat Africa Malaria themesite and online networking platform is for practitioners utilising social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) for malaria prevention, control, and treatment in Africa. The malaria themesite offers an ever growing collection of practical tools, research and resources and is accompanied by a bi-monthly e-magazine (see archives click here). This Malaria initiative is supported by the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) and C-Change (a project of FHI 360) and is implemented by Soul Beat Africa.

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13. WASH-Friendly Schools Training Guide for Parents, Teachers and Student Leaders

This training guide, published by United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Hygiene Improvement Project (HIP) in 2010, promotes the WASH in Schools movement to create and maintain "WASH-Friendly Schools" that have safe and healthy environments, including adequate facilities for hygiene and sanitation that allow children to be healthier and more attentive. The guide is intended to help teachers, parents, and students work together to carry out a plan for making their school WASH-friendly. (Note: Please see Related Summaries at the bottom of the page for more related guides)

14. Cartoon Calendar Highlighting the Critical Role of Gender in Water and Sanitation
From the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), this 2012 calendar features cartoons for each month depicting water and sanitation challenges from a gender perspective. The goal is to use a vivid visual medium - with very few words - to call attention to some of the social norms that result from, and reinforce, poor service quality. It is motivated by evidence such as that presented in the World Bank's 2012 World Development Report, which shows that when services fail, women and girls are disproportionately affected.

15. Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook for Activists - Using a Human Rights Approach for Advocacy on Access to Water and Sanitation
By Lara El-Jazairi
"Advocacy is one strategy that can be used to bring about improvements in water and sanitation. It can influence decision makers, call for an extension of services to underserved and unserved areas, challenge or draw attention to unfair or discriminatory practices, influence public policy and resource allocation, propose solutions to problems, create a space for negotiation between communities and authorities, mobilise funds or build awareness about an issue." The purpose of this handbook, produced by the Freshwater Action Network (FAN) in cooperation with the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE) and BothEnds in 2010, is to help civil society and those working on water and sanitation issues to adopt a human rights-based approach to advocacy.  

16. Revitalising Community-led Total Sanitation - A Process Guide
By Ada Oko-Williams, Joe Lambongang, and Nick Bundle
This guide, published by WaterAid in 2011, addresses the need to adapt Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) to meet country-specific challenges, and outlines obstacles and possible solutions for making the approach work in Nigeria. According to the authors, this document is a practical guide to implementing the revitalised CLTS approach in Nigeria, and is intended to bring about inclusive, equitable, and effective results. It covers the main barriers and triggers to progress likely to be encountered along the way, provides technical advice on dealing with geophysical environments that make latrine construction difficult, and makes recommendations for monitoring and documenting the process to ensure long-term behaviour change.

17. The Advocacy Sourcebook
Edited by Mary O’Connell, Gideon Burrows, and Libby Plumb
The primary aim of this 2007 guide is to "assist WaterAid staff and partner organisations in drawing up advocacy plans that aim to improve the water supply and sanitation situation of the poorest people in the countries where they work." As such, it may be useful to "anyone who wants to change the lives of the poorest people in the world." The Advocacy Sourcebook looks at what advocacy is, why organisations do advocacy, how to develop advocacy plans, and how to make advocacy happen. It offers a selection of advocacy tools from a toolkit that can be used as is or modified according to specific campaign needs.



18. WASH Media Awards
Deadline for Application: April 1 2012
The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) and the Stockholm (Sweden) International Water Institute (SIWI) welcome entries for the fourth edition of the WASH Media Awards. This competition is open to journalists who publish or broadcast original investigative stories and reports on water supply, sanitation, or hygiene (WASH) related issues and their impact on individual and country development. To be eligible, entries must be published or broadcast between April 1 2011 and April 1 2012 in English, French, or Hindi.

Past WASH-related issues of The Soul Beat include:

The Soul Beat 171 - Promoting Hygiene and Sanitation in Africa

The Soul Beat 118 - Communication for Hygiene and Sanitation

To view ALL past editions of The Soul Beat e-newsletter click here.


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